Post-verbal elements in Balochi
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The purpose of the present study is to investigate post-predicate elements in Balochi. The investigation will be based on oral narratives (both folktales and life stories) from three different Balochi dialects spoken in Iran (Sistani Balochi, Barjasteh Delforooz 2010; Koroshi Balochi, Nourzaei et al. 2015; Southern Balochi, Nourzaei 2017).
Even though the basic word order in Kurdish, Persian, and Balochi is SOV, in all these languages a number of elements can occur in the post-predicate position.
Frommer (1981) finds that in Colloquial Persian the most commonly postponed constituent is what he calls “destination”, and that it more frequently occurs without a preposition than with a preposition when it is postponed. Also the constituents non-destinational preposition phrase (including recipient), subject, direct object, other adverbials than destination, can occur after the predicate. Also Lazard (2006) finds that the post-predicate position is more common for what he calls “un complement conconstanciel” than for a subject or an object.
Haig (2015) finds that in Kurdish “goals” (including goals of verbs of motion, recipients of verbs of transfer, and addressees of verbs of speech) are the “most prominent kind of post-predicate argument” (ibid.: 413), and that those dialects spoken in contact with North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic (NENA) exhibit the largest range of elements in the post-verbal position. He suggests that the V-Goal word order that was already available as a possibility in Old and Middle Iranian, has been extended, perhaps through contact influence with Aramaic, so that now Kurdish shows “a basically identical word order profile” (ibid.: 423) with some dialects of NENA (in particular so-called Trans-Zab Jewish dialects).
The purpose of the present study is to investigate post-predicate elements in Balochi, a West-Iranian language that today is spoken in the south-eastern corner of the Iranian language area, far from NENA influence. The investigation will be based on oral narratives (both folktales and life stories) from three different Balochi dialects spoken in Iran (Sistani Balochi, Barjasteh Delforooz 2010; Koroshi Balochi, Nourzaei et al. 2015; Southern Balochi, Nourzaei 2017). The findings may give an indication as to whether post-predicate goals is indeed a widespread feature in West-Iranian languages or if persistent contact with right branching languages, such as Aramaic, appears to be a crucial factor in the development/retention of post verbal goals.
Barjasteh Delforooz, Behrooz (2010). Discourse Features in Balochi of Sistan. Oral Narratives [Studia Iranica Upsaliensia, 15]. Revised version. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Online at:
http://uu.divaportal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:345413 (accessed 12 July 2017).
Frommer, Paul Robert (1981). Post-verbal Phenomena in Colloquial Persian Syntax. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Los Angeles: University of Southern California.
Haig, Geoffrey (2015). “Verb-Goal (VG) Word Order in Kurdish and Neo-Aramaic: Typological and Areal Considerations.” In: Khan, Geoffrey, and Lidia Napiorkowska (eds), Neo-Aramaic and its Linguistic Context [Gorgias Neo-Aramaic Studies, 14]. New York: Gorgias Press, pp. 407–425.
Lazard, Gilbert (2006). Grammaire du persan contemporain. Nouvelle édition, avec la collaboration de Yann Richard, Rokhsareh Hechmati et Pollet Samvelian. Tehran: Institut Français de recherche en Iran.
Nourzaei, Maryam (2017). Participant Reference in Three Balochi Dialects. Male and Female Narrations of Folktales and Biographical Tales [Studia Iranica Upsaliensia, 31]. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.
Appendix A, Text Corpus. Online at:
http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1069126/ATTACHMENT01.pdf (accessed 26 June 2017).
Nourzaei, Maryam, Carina Jahani, Erik Anonby, and Abbas Ali Ahangar (2015). Koroshi. A Corpus-based Grammatical Description [Studia Iranica Upsaliensia, 13]. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Online at:
http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:810250/FULLTEXT01.pdf (accessed 12 Ju